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如何做好课堂的主人—和A-level学员谈学方法

         很高兴,以这种方式在这里和同学们进行交流。我们将围绕A-level学习方法为主题,从课堂效率、时间管理、学习规划、学习习惯、记忆方法、应考技巧、如何有效阅读教材、如何使用辅助资源等角度,陆续和同学们进行探讨。本文采取中英文混合的方式,以求体现A-level作为国际课程的特点,并兼顾可读性。今天,我们先从课堂谈起……
   我们有超过十年的上学经历,难道还不会听课吗?课堂的重要性,其实是再强调都不为过的。在中学阶段,我们的大部分课内知识是在课堂上获得的,所以认真听讲、提高课堂效率是最为有效而明智的学习方法。课堂听讲,不只是用耳朵去听老师所讲的内容,更是用心思考、理解、加工和消化知识的过程。
   那么,如何提高课堂效率,做好课堂的主人呢?我们可以从以下几个方面着手
   一、课前预习。Be Cognitively Ready to Listen When You Come to Class. Make sure you complete all assigned work and readings. Review your notes from previous class sessions. Think about what you know about the topic that will be covered in class that day.
   二、积极的态度。Be Emotionally Ready to Listen When You Come to Class. Your attitude is important. Make a conscious choice to find the topic useful and interesting. Be committed to learning all that you can. 兴奋与抑制,是大脑神经互相对立的两种功能。积极的态度,能使脑神经处于兴奋状态,使思维的阀门打开,从而容易接受和处理信息,高效顺利地完成学习任务;而消极的态度,则使脑神经处于抑制状态,使思维的阀门关闭,难以进行有效地学习。
   三、有的放矢。Listen with a Purpose. Identify what you expect and hope to learn from the class session. Listen for these things as your teacher talks. 如果课前进行过预习,听课时就会更加有针对性、目的性。
   四、集中注意力。Be Attentive. Focus on what your teacher is saying. Try not to daydream and let your mind wander to other things. It helps to sit in the front and center of the class, and to maintain eye contact with your teacher.
   五、边听边思考。Listen with an Open Mind. Be receptive to what your teacher says. It is good to question what is said as long as you remain open to points of view other than your own.
   六、学会记笔记。Taking notes in class. Take good written notes about what your teacher says. While you can think faster than your teacher can speak, you cannot write faster than your teacher can speak. Taking notes requires you to make decisions about what to write. Listen for “signal statements” that tells you that what your teacher is about to say is important to write in your notes. Examples of signal statements are “The most important point…” and “Remember that…” 老师反复强调的内容,与板书的内容,往往是重点内容,需要记下来。笔记不一定是纯文字,可以充分发挥想象力,使用思维导图  
  恰当使用缩略语,也是提高笔记速度的重要技巧。常用的缩略规则有三种:一是省略单词的后半部分,二是省略元音字母,三是首字母组合。例如:   

原词语

maximum

minimum

stationary point

equation

quality

reason

缩略语

max

min

s.p.

eqn.

qlty

rsn

  课后需要对笔记进行适当的整理,修正错误,将缩略语还原等。同时,这也是一次及时和有效的复习,在整理笔记的过程中,知识可以得到充分的巩固和消化。

  七、迎难而上。Meet the Challenge. Don't give up and stop listening when you find the information being presented difficult to understand. Listen even more carefully at these times and work hard to understand what is being said. Don't be reluctant to ask questions.
  对于全英文授课的内容,同时面对语言关和知识关,不少同学感觉听课存在一定的困难。这个时侯,要迎难而上。首先是课前预习,提前熟悉课堂内容,以降低听课难度;其次要有耐心,即使没听懂,也要坚持,可以不求甚解,但不可浅尝辄止,课后及时复习,遇到困难向老师和同学求助;第三要有信心,在我们还是两三岁小朋友的时候,就能够通过反复听和观察的过程掌握语言。听课也是同样的道理,一回生二回熟,坚持就能有收获。
  八、克服干扰。Triumph Over the Environment. The classroom may too noisy, too hot, too cold, too bright, or too dark. Don't give in to these inconveniences. Stay focused on the big picture - LEARNING.
  建议同学们从上述几个方面,结合现状进行反思,改善不足之处,尽力做到最好,真正成为学习的主人

 

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